Amid the blackened tables and melted sewing machines at Tazreen Fashions Ltd., an Associated Press reporter discovered clothes and account books Wednesday that indicated the factory was used by a host of major U.S. and European retailers.
Among the items discovered: children's shorts with Wal-Mart's Faded Glory label, hooded sweaters marked "Disney Pixar," shorts with hip-hop star Sean Combs' ENYCE tag, and sweaters from the French company Teddy Smith and the Scottish company Edinburgh Woollen Mill. Sears was also among the companies listed in the account books.
The tragedy at the beginning of the holiday season is putting a spotlight on dangerous workplace conditions around the world, with no clear answers to how consumers should react or who is ultimately responsible.
Wal-Mart said that it received a safety audit that showed the factory was "high-risk" and had decided well before the blaze to stop doing business with Tazreen. But it said a supplier had continued to use Tazreen without authorization.
When pressed for an explanation of how a supplier could use a factory without the retailer's approval and whether it happened often, Kevin Gardner, a Wal-Mart spokesman, did not directly address the issue in emails to The Associated Press.
Sears said it learned after the blaze that its merchandise was being produced there without its approval through a vendor, which has since been fired. Walt Disney Co., which licenses its characters to clothing makers, said its records indicate that none of its licensees have been permitted to make Disney-brand products at the factory for at least a year.
Combs' Sean Jean Enterprises did not return calls.
Retailers like Wal-Mart have clauses in place that require suppliers to disclose all factories and subcontractors producing merchandise for sale. But it's hard to crack down on unauthorized subcontracting, said Josh Green, chief executive of New York-based Panjiva, which tracks shipments for factories outside the U.S.
"The reality is you have to have round-the-clock monitoring of every aspect of the supplier's operations," he said. "It's just not feasible."
Green noted that subcontracting is pervasive as suppliers look for ways to cut costs.
"You have relentless pressure that consumers put on retailers and that retailers put on their suppliers to deliver lower and lower prices," he said. "And that pressure is a key reason why you see factories cutting corners."